Earth Facts: Interesting information about the earth

The earth is the only life-supporting known planet. It was formed around 4.5 billion years ago which is 3rd planet from the sun. Earth is the 1st largest terrestrial planet and 5th largest planet in our solar system. It is always fascinating to know facts about the earth because this is our home planet.

More than 99% of species have vanished that ever lived on the earth. Approximately 71% of the earth’s surface area covered with ocean water and 29% are covered with continents, islands, rivers, and lakes.

Information and Facts about the earth

In this article, we have mentioned some interesting and informative facts about the earth. Including its physical characteristics such as its mass, volume, temperature, etc, and other facts like its deepest point, the highest point, and many more facts about the earth are given here.  

Radius 

The earth is not a perfectly spherical body, so it is a spheroid. There is a small flatness at the polar side, because of the radius difference between equatorial and polar radius. The mean radius of the earth is 6371 km and the difference between equatorial and polar radius is 21 km.

  • Equatorial radius = 6378 km
  • Polar radius = 6358 km
  • Mean radius = 6371 km

Volume

The volume of the earth is 1.08 ×1012 km3. Whereas the volume of the sun is 1300000 times of the earth, so in the sun 1300000 earth can enter. Still, it is the largest terrestrial planet of the solar system.

Mass

This is the most massive terrestrial planet and 5th massive planet in our solar system. The mass of the planet earth 5.98 × 1024 kg.

Mass = 5.98 × 1000,000,000,000,000 billion kilogram.

Density

Earth is the densest planet in our solar system, whereas the 2nd densest planet is Mercury. The density of the earth varies from surface to core (center). The average density of the earth is almost 4 times greater than the average density of the sun.

  • Average density = 5.5 gm/cm3
  • Core density = 13 gm/cm3

(Read about: facts about planet mercury)

Surface gravity

The acceleration due to gravity or value of the ‘g’ for the earth is 9.8 m/sec2. 

(Read about:Gravity and Gravitational Force)

Escape velocity

The escape velocity of the earth is the minimum speed needed for any object to be free from the gravitational effect of the earth.

Escape velocity = 11.2 km/sec

Rotation 

The earth takes almost ‘365 days 6 hours’ to rotate in a fixed orbit around the sun. The orbital speed of the earth around the sun is 29.8 km/sec. As we know it also rotates around its rotation axis and here it takes ‘23 hours 56 min 4 sec’ to complete one rotation.  

earth rotational axis

The rotation axis of the earth

(Read about: Why do planets revolve around the Sun?)

Obliquity (axial tilt)

Axial tilt is the reason for developing seasons on the earth. Its axis is tilted almost 23.5 degrees, which is the angle between the rotational axis and the orbital axis. The orbital axis is perpendicular to the orbit plane. Axial tilt is called obliquity and it varies from  22 – 24.5 degrees over a long cycle period of 41000 years. 

Temperature

Seasonal changes in climate occur on the earth due to its obliquity. So there is variation in temperature that has been measured at different locations till now. 

  • Maximum temp = 57 degree Celcius
  • Minimum temp = -89 degree Celcius
  • Average temp = 15 degree Celcius

It is a good fact that the core temperature of the earth is slightly more than the surface temperature of the sun. The core temperature of the earth is approx 5600-degree Celcius. I personally consider it the best facts about the earth.

Pressure

Atmospheric pressure on earth is 1.01325 bar. The composition of the earth’s atmosphere is Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen (21%), Argon (0.93%), and some amount of other gases like Carbon dioxide. 

1 bar = 105 N/m2 = 105 Pascals

(Read about:earth’s atmosphere)

Structure of the Earth

The mass of the earth is almost 6 × 1024 kg. It is made of mostly iron(32%), oxygen(30%), silicon(15%a), magnesium(13%), sulphur(3%), nickel(2%) and other elements are also present like aluminium and calcium in very less amount. The core of the earth has 89% iron and 6% nickel.

The earth is divided into 3 basic layers; crust, mantle, and core. 

Crust- the earth’s surface is covered by this layer. It is almost 100 km below to surface.

Mantle- this layer is found between 100 to 2900 km below to surface and is made of solid and melted rocks.

Core- it is found between 3000 to 6400 km below to surface. The inner core temperature ranges from 5000 to 6000 degrees Celcius.

Deepest point on earth

Mariana trench is the deepest place on the earth. It is 11034 m below from the sea level. This trench is located in the pacific ocean.

Highest point on earth

Mount Everest is the highest mountain on earth. It is 8848 m above from the sea level and located between Nepal and China border in the Asia continent.

The natural satellite of earth

The earth’s natural satellite is ‘moon’. The gravitational force of the sun enables the earth to orbit around it, in the same way, the gravity of the earth enables the moon to orbit around the earth. The gravitational force between the earth and the moon causes the tides in the ocean.

(Read about:Interesting facts of the moon)

Earth’s Magnetosphere

The magnetic field of the earth and charged ions or plasma of the outer space creates a region outside of the earth called the magnetosphere. This magnetosphere region of the earth protects the atmosphere of the earth from harmful solar and cosmic radiation

It has extended almost 70,000 km in dayside all around the earth. Whereas at night side it can extend up to 6,300,000 km from the earth’s surface. Magnetosphere includes one of the interesting facts about the earth. So here, know more about the magnetosphere of the earth.


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