Solar System Planets: Planet Facts

Solar system planets

A planet is a large and rounded astronomical object that orbits around its sun. Our solar system has 8 planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and mainly 5 dwarf planets Ceres, Pluto, Haumea, Makemake, Eris. 

Mainly, there are two types of planets in our solar system:

1. Terrestrial planets (inner planets)

The number of terrestrial planets in our solar system are four; Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. These planets are closest to the sun and have a rocky surface.

2. Giant planets (outer planets)

There are also four giant planets; Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Jupiter and Saturn are called ‘gas giant planets’ whereas Uranus and Neptune are called ‘ice giant planets’. These planets are mostly made of gases like hydrogen, helium, methane, and ammonia.

There are other different types of planets that exist but not in our solar system, such as rogue planets and exoplanets. Now here we have mentioned informative and educational facts about 8 planets of our solar system.

Mercury FactsMercury image link

  • Mercury is the fastest and nearest planet that orbits around the sun.
  • Its orbital speed is 47.87 km/sec around the sun. 
  • It completes one orbit in 88 earth days.
  • The surface temperature of mercury ranges from ‘-175 °C to 430 °C’.
  • Mercury is an extremely hot planet because it is the nearest to the sun. Though it is not the hottest planet of our solar system.

(Read in detail:Facts about planet Mercury)

Venus Factsvenus image link

  • It is the hottest planet in our solar system even hotter than Mercury.
  • This planet is the nearest to earth and 2nd nearest to the sun after Mercury.
  • The surface temperature of Venus ranges from ‘-220 °C to 465 °C’.
  • Venus has some nickname like “evening star”, “morning star”, “veiled planet”, “earth’s twin”, and “earth’s sister”.
  • It is the 2nd fastest planet that has an orbital speed of 35.05 km/sec and it completes one orbit around the sun in 225 earth days.
  • Planet Venus has high pressure at its surface. It is 92 times higher than the atmospheric pressure on earth. 

venus atmosphere

Earth Factsearth image link

  • Earth is the largest terrestrial planet and the only known planet that has life on it.
  • It travels around the sun with a speed of 29.78 km/sec and completes one orbit in 365.24 earth days.
  • The magnetosphere of the earth protects us from harmful solar and cosmic winds. 

  • It is known as ‘blue planet’ and ‘watery planet’ because of the large amount of water present on it.
  • 71% surface of the earth is covered with water.
  • The atmosphere of the earth has a supportive living environment. Earth’s atmosphere has divided into different types of layers for different purposes.
  • Earth has an ozone layer in its atmosphere that protects us from the harmful ultraviolet radiation of the sun.

(Read about:Facts about Our Earth)

Mars Factsmars image link

  • The orbital speed of the mass is 24.07 km/sec and it completes one orbit around the sun in 687 earth days.
  • It is also a ‘red planet’ because of the large amount of iron oxide present on it that gives it a reddish appearance.
  • The mars have two natural satellites, Phobos and Deimos.
  • Highest known mountain ‘Olympus Mons’ in on the mars. It is approximately 22 km high.
  • Mars will also have a ring around it in the future. It is estimated that its moon Phobos will tear apart after 30 million years that would create a ring around it.

Mars characteristic

(Read about:Facts of planet Mars)

Jupiter Factsjupiter image link

  • Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system with a mass of 1.9 × 1027 kg.
  • The mass of Jupiter is more than 2.5 times greater than the mass of all other combined planets. Its mass is 318 times greater than the mass of earth.
  • It has 79 known moons including four large Galilean Moons discovered by Galileo Galilei. Galilean Moons ‘lo, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto’ are the largest four of Jupiter in which Ganymede is the largest in the solar system and larger than the planet mercury.
Io moon

Jupiter and its Moon ‘Io’

  • Planet Jupiter is known as ‘winter planet’ because of its low average temperature ‘-148 °C’.
  • The orbital speed of the Jupiter is 13.07 km/sec around the sun and it completes one orbit around the sun in 11.9 earth years.
  • Jupiter has the shortest day compared to all planets that complete one spin around its axis in 9 hours and 55 minutes.

Jupiter characteristic

(Read in detail:All about planet Jupiter)

Saturn Factssaturn image link

  • This planet is the 2nd largest in our solar system with a mass of 5.7 × 1026 kg.
  • Saturn has massive bright rings made of ice and dust particles that revolve around it.
  • According to an estimation Saturn has around 150 moons but only 82 of them have confirmed orbit and the other 68 are the moonlets of the Saturn (moonlets are comparatively small natural moons that orbit a planet). Moon ‘Titan’ is the largest of Saturn and 2nd largest in the solar system.
  • The orbital speed of the Saturn is 9.70 km/sec and completes one revolution around the sun in 29.5 earth years.

(Read  in detail:Facts about Saturn)

Uranus Factsuranus image link

  • It was the 1st planet that was discovered by using a telescope in 1781 AD.
  • Uranus is an ice giant planet and it is the coldest planet in our solar system with a recorded minimum temperature of ‘-224 °C’.
  • The orbital speed of the universe is 6.81 km/sec and it completes one revolution around the sun in 84 earth years.
  • It has 27 known moons and the size of the Uranus is about 4 times greater than the earth. 

(Read in detail:Uranus Planet Facts)

Neptune Factsneptune image link

  • Neptune is the eighth planet from the sun and farthest one in all planets of the solar system.
  • Since it is not visible with the naked eye so could not be discovered by ancient people.
  • It was 1st observed by John Couch Adams in 1846 AD.
  • Neptune has a slowest orbital speed of 5.43 km/sec around the sun. It completes one orbit around the sun in 165 earth years.
  • Neptune has the lowest average planetary temperature in our solar system.
  • It has 14 known moons in which ‘Triton’ is the largest.

Related:- Neptune Planet facts and information


So these were the 8 planets and their facts explained by PlanetsEducation in the short term. I hope you have liked reading it. To read about them in detail, check the mentioned links.

As we know our solar system also has some dwarf planets, comets, asteroids, and other solar system bodies. Check here:- 

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