The sun is a yellow dwarf star in the center of the solar system. Knowing about the facts of the sun is always fascinating to everyone. It is a main-sequence G2V type star. It is also called ‘sol’ by Romans and ‘Helios’ by Greeks.
Information and facts of the sun
The sun creates energy by nuclear fusion of Hydrogen into helium. Generally, it helps life on earth by photosynthesis and also responsible for climates and weather on earth, but knowing deeply about it is going to amaze you.
Sun is almost a perfect sphere and has found an almost 10 km difference between its equatorial and polar axis. The diameter of the sun is about 1.39 million km, which is 109 times of earth’s diameter.
Diameter = 1390000 km = 109 × diameter of earth
It contains 99.86 % total mass of the solar system and 333000 times of eath’s mass. Mostly it consists of almost 73% Hydrogen and almost 25 % Helium.
Mass = 2×1030 kg = 2,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg = 333000 × mass of the earth
(Read about:- Facts of the Earth)
1300000 earth can enter in the sun because the volume of it is 1.3 million times of earth’s volume.
Volume = 2 × 1018 km3 = 2,000,000,000,000,000,000 km3 = 1300000 × volume of the earth
Density is the term that always creates interest to know about facts of the universe. The average density of the sun is almost ¼ th to an average density of the earth whereas the center density of it is about 12.4 times the central density of the earth.
- Average density = 1.4 gm/cm3 = 0.25 × average density of earth
- Center density = 162.4 gm/cm3 = 12.41 × center density of the earth
As we know our moon is continuously rotating around the earth in an orbit and our earth is rotating around the sun. In the same way, the sun is also rotating around the center of the galaxy milky way. Its rotational velocity is very much almost 220 km/sec. Its escape velocity is almost 55 times the earth’s escape velocity.
- Velocity = 220 km/sec around the center of the milky way
- Escape velocity = 617 km/sec = 55 × escape velocity of the earth
⇒ Composition (by mass)
Sun is mainly composed of hydrogen and helium. It contains some heavy metals including other chemical elements.
- Hydrogen = 73.5 %
- Helium = 24.8 %
- Oxygen = 0.8 %
- Carbon = 0.3 %
And other elements like Iron, Neon, Magnesium, Sulphur are also present in very little quantity.
It is made up of some layers and every layer contain different temperature. The core of the core part is in millions which extend 20 – 25 % from the center. Because of the high temperature it has continue nuclear fusion reaction inside the core.
- Core temperature = 1.5 × 107 degree Celcius
- Surface temperature = 5500 degrees Celcius
⇒ Age of the sun
The sun formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago. It is continuously creating energy by fusion of hydrogen into helium since the starting age of its life. Our sun is in the middle of its life. It can produce energy of approximately 5 billion years more. Then there will not be any availability of hydrogen to fuse.
- Age = 4.6 billion years (origin to present)
- Age = 5 billion years (present to end)
⇒ Structure of the sun
The structure of the sun is divided into layers:
It is the part that contains 20 – 25 % from the center. In this layer, hydrogen converts into helium and produces energy. Here energy transfer occurs in the form of convection. The temperature of the core is almost 15 million degrees Celcius. Approximately 99 % of the power generated by this 25 % of the sun’s radius.
This layer extends 25 – 70 % from the center of the radius. Here transfer of energy to outside happens by radiation.
It extends between 70 % from the radius to a point close to the visible surface. This layer is responsible for the transfer of energy and heat to the surface.
Our sun does not contain any defined surface because it is a gaseous object. The outer part which is visible is called the photosphere. And the temperature of the photosphere layer is almost 5500-degree Celcius.
⇒ Energy (nuclear fusion)
The sun is the reason for the available energy even on earth. In the core, hydrogen converts into helium by the nuclear fusion reaction. In nuclear fusion, two or more atomic nuclei combined and form other atomic nuclei in the presence of very high temperatures(1.5 × 107 K).
Because of nuclear fusion, approximately 4.5 × 1011 kg mass converts into energy per second (this is one of my favorite facts of the sun). It means in every second the sun is decaying so fast by means of mass still, it can produce energy billions of years from now on.
⇒ Sun and planets
The mean distance of the sun from the earth is called the astronomical unit (au). 1 astronomical unit is approximately 150 million km. It takes 8 minutes and 18 seconds to reach rays of the sun on earth. So the distance between earth and sun is 8 min 18 light second.
|Planets||Distance from Sun (approx center to center)||The rotation period of planets around Sun|
|Mercury||57,910,000 km||88 earth days|
|Venus||108,200,000 km||225 earth days|
|Earth||149,600,000 km||365.25 earth days|
|Mars||227,900,000 km||1.9 earth years|
|Jupiter||778,500,000 km||11.9 earth years|
|Saturn||1,434,000,000 km||29.5 earth years|
|Uranus||2,871,000,000 km||84 earth years|
|Neptune||4,495,000,000 km||164.8 earth years|
The distance from the milky way galaxy is 27200 light-years. When the moon comes between sun and earth while rotating around its orbit, then it stops the sun rays to fall on earth. This phenomenon is called a solar eclipse, so this information may be considered as good and interesting facts of the sun.
How the sun was formed?
Our sun was formed around 4.5 billion years ago, due to the gravitational collapse of a solar nebula. A solar nebula contains giant clouds and dust. And the gravitational collapse is the contraction process of any object due to its own high gravity.
As the giant clouds and dust started collapsing, it started to spin faster and made an approximate shape of the disk. This made most of the materials to gather at the center and thus formed the sun. Whereas the orbiting disk shape clouds formed the other solar system objects such as planets, moons, asteroids, and other solar system objects.
High-density clouds and dust of solar nebula collected at the center of the rotating disk and hence formed the sun. Therefore the mass of the sun is more than 99.98% to the rest of the other solar system objects.
This central mass of the sun has so much density and temperature. Because of its high density and temperature, it creates nuclear fusion reaction inside to the core. So after following this process, our sun generates heat and energy.
So these were some interesting and informative facts of the sun. I hope you have liked it. To ask something or want to add some other facts about the sun, please comment. Share it also with the needy one.
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