The 4 fundamental forces of nature also known as fundamental interactions are gravitational force, electromagnetic force, strong nuclear force, and weak nuclear force. These are the smallest force present in the universe and are not divisible into any basic forces.
The 4 fundamental forces of nature govern everything in the universe and hold atoms, planets, stars, solar systems, galaxies, and everything. The effect of Gravitational force and electromagnetic force has a long-range and it can be experienced in daily life. Whereas the effect of the strong force and weak force has a short-range at a level of subatomic particles.
List of fundamental forces
The 4 fundamental forces of nature are described by their carrier particles. Some of the elementary particles are responsible for carrying these forces and works as a force carrier. Here we have described the four fundamental forces and their force carrier particles in a table form:
|4 fundamental forces of nature||Force carrier elementary particles||Range of effect|
|Gravitational Force||Graviton (hypothetical)||Infinity|
|Weak Nuclear Force||W & Z bosons||10-18 m|
|Strong Nuclear Force||Gluons||10-15 m|
According to the ‘standard model of particle physics’ strong force is carried by gluons and it holds together the elementary quarks. The weak force acts on the nucleus of the atoms and is mediated by elementary W & Z bosons. The electromagnetic force is carried by photons and acts between electrically charged particles. Whereas the gravitational force is described by “Einstein’s general theory of relativity” as a space-time curvature and is carried by an elementary particle ‘graviton’ (graviton is a hypothetical particle- not discovered yet).
(Read about:- Einstein’s general theory of relativity)
Explanation about Fundamental forces of nature
The 4 fundamental forces with their behavior in the universe are described here:
Sir Issac Newton gave his ‘universal gravitation law’ in 1687 and according to this law “all bodies of the universe attract other bodies with a force called the gravitational force”. This force is directly proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to the distance between them.
F= G × m1× m2/r2
Where G is universal gravitational constant, m1 & m2 are the masses, and r is the distance between those two bodies.
In 1915 Albert Einstein gave his general theory of relativity and according to this theory, gravity is described by space-time curvature. If an object has more mass, it will create more curve in space-time and consequently will have more gravity.
- Fundamental gravitational force is the weakest force.
- It has an infinite range of effects.
- The gravitation is important for considering force between the distant objects.
- This is an attractive force and never repels.
- It is mostly considered for massive objects like planets, stars, galaxies.
- This gravitational force matters most for observing the large-scale structure in the universe.
- Mass is the source of this fundamental force.
Electromagnetic force or electromagnetism interaction acts between electrically charged particles. Electrically charged particles produce electromagnetic fields that are made of electrical fields and magnetic fields. The electromagnetic field is the reason to produce electromagnetic radiation or light.
- Electromagnetic force has an infinite range of effects like gravitation.
- It is 2nd strongest fundamental force of nature in the universe after the strong nuclear force.
- The electromagnetic force is carried by elementary photons that travel with the speed of light.
- This force can be attractive and repulsive in nature. It shows a repulsion effect for like electrical charges, whereas attraction effect for unlike charges. Electromagnetic force shows an attraction effect between the nucleus of an atom and electrons, hence it holds the atoms.
- The electromagnetic force has an infinite range of effects but it does not play a role in interstellar bodies like gravity. This is because the net electric charges are zero between these bodies. So this force is mostly considered for interaction between atoms.
- Electromagnetism interaction acts in the chemical bonding of the atoms.
- As this force have the macroscopic(infinite) range, so the distant effect of this force can also be seen in everyday life. For example, in rainbows, lightning, and human-made devices like television, computers, etc.
- The weak force also called weak interaction or weak nuclear force. This force acts upon the subatomic particles of the atoms.
- Weak interaction force has a short-range (10-18 m) of effects as it is a nuclear phenomenon.
- The mediators of this force are elementary W & Z bosons.
- Radioactive decay or beta decay happens because of the phenomenon of weak forces in the nucleus.
- The combined effect of electromagnetic force and the weak force develops a term electroweak force.
- The weak nuclear force is the 2nd weakest fundamental force of nature after the gravitational force.
- Nuclear fission reaction is associated with the weak nuclear force.
(Read about:- Elementary Particles)
- It is also known as a strong nuclear force or strong interaction. The strong nuclear force is responsible for holding elementary quarks together that forms protons and neutrons. Hence this force is considered to hold ordinary matters in the universe.
- Gluons are the force carrier elementary element for the fundamental strong nuclear force. As its name suggests ‘gluons’ acts like a ‘glue’ and binds the quarks that subsequently form protons and neutrons.
- The strong interaction is the strongest fundamental force of nature. While comparing with the 2nd strongest electromagnetic force it is almost 137 times stronger. It is more approximately 106 times stronger than a weak nuclear force and 1038 times stronger than the gravitational force.
- This force is unbelievably strong but shows effects in a very short range (10-15 m).
- The nuclear fusion reaction in the sun or stars is associated with the strong force.